RelativeFeatures

RelativeFeatures() applies basic mathematical operations between a group of variables and one or more reference features, adding the resulting features to the dataframe.

RelativeFeatures() uses the pandas methods pd.DataFrame.add(), pd.DataFrame.sub(), pd.DataFrame.mul(), pd.DataFrame.div(), pd.DataFrame.truediv(), pd.DataFrame.floordiv(), pd.DataFrame.mod() and pd.DataFrame.pow() to transform a group of variables by a group of reference variables.

For example, if we have the variables:

  • number_payments_first_quarter

  • number_payments_second_quarter

  • number_payments_third_quarter

  • number_payments_fourth_quarter

  • total_payments,

we can use RelativeFeatures() to determine the percentage of payments per quarter as follows:

transformer = RelativeFeatures(
    variables=[
        'number_payments_first_quarter',
        'number_payments_second_quarter',
        'number_payments_third_quarter',
        'number_payments_fourth_quarter',
    ],
    reference=['total_payments'],
    func=['div'],
)

Xt = transformer.fit_transform(X)

The precedent code block will return a new dataframe, Xt, with 4 new variables that are calculated as the division of each one of the variables in variables and ‘total_payments’.

Examples

Let’s dive into how we can use RelativeFeatures() in more details. Let’s first create a toy dataset:

import pandas as pd
from feature_engine.creation import RelativeFeatures

df = pd.DataFrame.from_dict(
    {
        "Name": ["tom", "nick", "krish", "jack"],
        "City": ["London", "Manchester", "Liverpool", "Bristol"],
        "Age": [20, 21, 19, 18],
        "Marks": [0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6],
        "dob": pd.date_range("2020-02-24", periods=4, freq="T"),
    })

print(df)

The dataset looks like this:

    Name        City  Age  Marks                 dob
0    tom      London   20    0.9 2020-02-24 00:00:00
1   nick  Manchester   21    0.8 2020-02-24 00:01:00
2  krish   Liverpool   19    0.7 2020-02-24 00:02:00
3   jack     Bristol   18    0.6 2020-02-24 00:03:00

We can now apply several functions between the numerical variables Age and Marks and Age as follows:

transformer = RelativeFeatures(
    variables=["Age", "Marks"],
    reference=["Age"],
    func = ["sub", "div", "mod", "pow"],
)

df_t = transformer.fit_transform(df)

print(df_t)

And we obtain the following dataset, where the new variables are named after the variables that were used for the calculation and the function in the middle of their names. Thus, Mark_sub_Age means Mark - Age, and Marks_mod_Age means Mark % Age.

    Name        City  Age  Marks                 dob  Age_sub_Age  \
0    tom      London   20    0.9 2020-02-24 00:00:00            0
1   nick  Manchester   21    0.8 2020-02-24 00:01:00            0
2  krish   Liverpool   19    0.7 2020-02-24 00:02:00            0
3   jack     Bristol   18    0.6 2020-02-24 00:03:00            0

   Marks_sub_Age  Age_div_Age  Marks_div_Age  Age_mod_Age  Marks_mod_Age  \
0          -19.1          1.0       0.045000            0            0.9
1          -20.2          1.0       0.038095            0            0.8
2          -18.3          1.0       0.036842            0            0.7
3          -17.4          1.0       0.033333            0            0.6

           Age_pow_Age  Marks_pow_Age
0 -2101438300051996672       0.121577
1 -1595931050845505211       0.009223
2  6353754964178307979       0.001140
3  -497033925936021504       0.000102

We can obtain the names of all the features in the transformed data as follows:

transformer.get_feature_names_out(input_features=None)

Which will return the names of all the variables in the transformed data:

['Name',
 'City',
 'Age',
 'Marks',
 'dob',
 'Age_sub_Age',
 'Marks_sub_Age',
 'Age_div_Age',
 'Marks_div_Age',
 'Age_mod_Age',
 'Marks_mod_Age',
 'Age_pow_Age',
 'Marks_pow_Age']

Or, we can obtain the names of the new variables only:

transformer.get_feature_names_out(input_features=True)

Which will return the names of the new features:

['Age_sub_Age',
 'Marks_sub_Age',
 'Age_div_Age',
 'Marks_div_Age',
 'Age_mod_Age',
 'Marks_mod_Age',
 'Age_pow_Age',
 'Marks_pow_Age']

More details

You can find creative ways to use the RelativeFeatures() in the following Jupyter notebooks and Kaggle kernels.

All notebooks can be found in a dedicated repository.